Chapter 1: Language is meaningless without context. If one wants to make a point, one should give some sort of framework for why they wish to make the point, or what conversations are already in place.
Chapter 2:When summarizing, it is common to over summarize, so that the reader drowns in details; or under summarize; so the reader has no idea of the context. An effective summary provides essential background and relates it to the writers own words.
Chapter 3: Quotes are engaging and give a writer credibility. The writer must provide relevance and context for any quotations used. It is best to avoid redundant language such as "There is a quote by Jefferson...."
Chapter 4: There are three basic ways to respond to an argument: to disagree, to agree, or a mixture of both, i.e. to (dis)agree with reservations.
Chapter 5: It is important to distinguish which ideas are the writer's and which the writer is summarizing or reiterating. A writer can use various voice markers to indicate who is "speaking", such as the first person.
Chapter 6: It can enhance a writer's credibility to address criticism in their writing, as long as the writer can convincingly defend his/her own ideas . If a writer finds the criticism too convincing, perhaps they need to write on a different topic or express his/her agreement with his/her reservations.
Chapter 7: A component of success (meaning others read the piece of writing) is the ability to define the audience and explain why the topic is relevant to them.
Chapter 8: Fluidity is paramount to reader comprehension. The easiest way to achieve fluidity is to make sure the individual sentences connect. Sentences of no to little relevance placed next to each other confuse the reader. After checking the individual sentences, the writer can evaluate the continuity of the work as a whole.
Chapter 9: A writers individual voice can have place in a formal paper. Often it adds interest and readability. A successful strategy for incorporating personal voice in writing is to balance it with more formal diction.
Chapter 10: Metacommentary is commentary on something the writer is writing; it is commentary on the more general commentary of the paper. It can help the writer clarify ideas that the reader may misunderstand. An example would be, "My point is not that we should do away with privatization, but that some institutions benefit from socialization."
Chapter 11: While class discussion is informal, it helps to integrate formal conversational strategies. Briefly summarizing a classmates point, for example, demonstrates that one is involved, understanding others correctly, and gives context to one's own arguments.
Chapter 12: Readers benefit by seeing writing as a response to an ongoing conversation. By noticing such cues as voice markers and pointing words, readers can interpret what the writer wants to say and why s/he is saying it.
Chapter 13: Scientific writing is primarily presenting data and interpreting it. While the data itself cannot be disputed, one can interpret it differently or find new implications thereof.
Chapter 14: Writing in the Social Sciences is usually analysis of behaviors and institutions. These subjects are often interpreted in many ways, and the meaning or significance of certain things are disputed. Common approaches to this writing include disputing interpretations, expounding on them, or explaining why something should be studied further.